Can a container ship filled with liquified natural gas be “carbon neutral”? Shell Oil and Cheniere Energy want you to believe that. In May, the two companies delivered a shipment of gas to Europe in which emissions associated with the upstream costs of processing and liquifying the gas were offset by carbon credits purchased from Shell’s portfolio of nature-based projects. Emissions were offset to the “FOB delivery point”. This means that Shell and Cheniere have offset the emissions all the way to the point of delivery, as indicated by this statement in their joint press release.
The companies worked together to offset the full lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with the LNG cargo by retiring nature-based offsets to account for the estimated carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions produced through the entire value chain, from production through use by the final consumer (all scopes).Shell Oil Press Release, May 5 2021
What they’re claiming is that independent of how the customer uses the product they’ve delivered, the product itself has been produced in a carbon-neutral fashion. And, of course, their shipping partners are eager to tout their new green credentials too. Astomos Energy, for example, put out a press release stating that they are now purchasing “carbon-neutral LPG”. The appetite for Cheniere’s new products was strong enough that they posted a 40% increase in revenues from a year ago, and bumped guidance, rewarding investors with a 74% increase in the stock price from this time last year.
Naturally, this has commentators crying foul. Salon labelled it a greenwashing scam. Cleantechnica simply said A tanker full of fossil fuels isn’t carbon neutral. That’s not how it works.
Decarbonizing supply chains is hard.
What this illustrates, quite neatly in fact, is the complexity of decarbonizing supply chains. At Davos this year, the WEF unveiled a report titled “Net-Zero Challenge: the supply chain opportunity“. The central thesis was that 8 supply chains accounted for over 50% of the world’s emissions, and that decarbonizing those supply chains would have impact. The energy industry wasn’t one of the eight supply chains named directly. Why not? Energy is an input into every supply chain. You literally cannot decarbonize supply chains without decarbonizing energy itself.
Let that sink in.
It’s good that Shell and Cheniere have taken the small step of offsetting the emissions associated with creating and shipping their polluting products, even if the marketing of those products as net-zero LPG is deceitful. The next step is to decarbonize energy generation itself — Shell and Cheniere’s customers.
Policy is part of the answer
So how do you decarbonize energy itself? Aside from technology solutions, policy is an incredibly important tool. Yesterday the UNEP Net-Zero Alliance, a group of investment managers representing $6.6 trillion of assets under management, released a position paper calling on governments to adopt common approaches on emissions pricing, to apply emissions pricing to every sector of economies (not just the heavy emitters), to swiftly phase out fossil fuel subsidies, and to fund research and create incentives to decarbonize hard-to-abate sectors. This approach — carrot and stick — works. You can see it visually by checking out the current price of European Usage Allocations futures (as at July 7). Emissions in Europe are now nearly $60/ton, up from $20 in April.
We’re still a long way from where we need to be. Analysts say that the price today needs to be closer to $85, rising to $145 by 2030, in order to reach a 1.5C global warming target. Emissions pricing schemes still only apply to 17% of the world’s carbon emissions. So long as emissions prices stay low, and customers exist that aren’t covered by pricing schemes, there will be a market for green-washed inputs like (unfortunately) fossil fuels.
As individuals, there are are two actions we can take.
- When emissions trading becomes a political issue in your country, vote in favor of emissions markets, or cap-and-trade solutions. There will always be those who claim that “the market” is the solution. The market is clearly not infallible, as the Shell / Cheniere announcement shows. Vote for emissions trading schemes with teeth, not un-regulated markets.
- When you have the option, buy green energy from your local supplier. Do your homework first, though. Make sure that you aren’t being sold green-washed fossil fuel energy, but rather energy from non-emitting sources like wind, solar, or nuclear.
And Shell, Cheniere… we know you have to serve your shareholders, but shame on you for such cynical marketing tactics. We deserve better.